|Presence of blood in the urine.
|Haemoptysis (or Hemoptysis)
|Expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained spit from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
|The tuberculin test performed by driving six short needles into the skin (the dermis) through a drop of concentrated tuberculin by means of a spring-loaded ‘Heaf gun’.
|Studying cells and tissues at a microscopic level.
|Human immunodeficiency virus. The cause of HIV disease (below) and AIDS.
|The clinical features resulting from HIV infection ranging from no symptoms through increased susceptibility to common infections to the more serious stage of AIDS. HIV disease can now be treated (but not cured) with anti-viral drugs.
|Someone who has tested positive for HIV. HIV positive people are referred to on this site as people living with HIV (PLHIV).
|Hong Kong operation
|A radical operation to prevent and correct deformity in cases of spinal tuberculosis.
|Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in chambers (ventricles) within the brain. The pressure causes severe damage to the brain and, in infants with pliable skull bones, swelling of the head. It is a serious complication of tuberculous meningitis and requires surgical decompression by means of a valve.
|Abnormal enlargement of a kidney due to obstruction of the flow of urine.
|An immunological reaction that does more damage to the host than to the causative agent of the reaction.